Vaccination is the process of acquiring immunity to fight off future infection. Vaccines have an agent resembling the virus, bacteria or parasite causing the disease, which in case of COVID-19 is the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The vaccine has either a weakened or dead microorganism, its toxins or a surface protein. It has the virus’s genetic material, which can then be read by the body to formulate the immune system response.
When the vaccine is injected, the agent goes into the cells of our tissues. Thereafter, it captures the attention of certain ‘dendritic’ cells, which have a specific function to monitor intruders that might have entered the body. The patrolling cells notice this never before seen agent and alarm the body against it.
The dendritic cells do this by reading the genetic instructions about the virus injected into the body through the vaccine. Thereafter, the information is replicated for the immune system to read and react.
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